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Bone Marrow Transplant: What is it, Uses, Risks, and Recovery

Bone marrow is a soft and fat tissue, and it’s inside our bones. It makes red blood cells that carry oxygen and nutrients around the body, white blood cells that fight infections, and platelets that aid clot formation.

What is Bone Marrow Transplant, and When Do You Need it?

When a person’s bone marrow isn’t healthy enough to work properly, they need a bone marrow transplant. Some of these conditions can be due to Immune Deficiencies, Congenital Neutropenia, Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS), or bone marrow cancers such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and lymphoma.

A bone marrow transplant is a medical procedure that replaces the damaged bone marrow. The transplant team transplants blood stem cells into the body and travels to the bone marrow. Here, they make new blood cells and help new bone marrow grow. A bone marrow transplant replaces the damaged stem cells with healthy ones, so the body can start making new ones.

Bone Marrow Transplant-The Different Types

These two types of transplants depend on why you require them.

Autologous Transplants– This transplant uses a person’s own stem cells to help them. Before starting treatment like chemotherapy or radiation, the doctor takes out cells from the body and freezes them. After getting chemotherapy or radiation from a doctor or nurse, your cells return to your bodies. This process can only be used if your bone marrow is healthy enough to work.

Allogeneic Transplants- In these cases, cells from a donor who is a good match for the patient are used. This can be completely matched or slightly off, depending on how well the HLA matches. A donor can be only a compatible family member or someone with matching DNA. These, on the other hand, have a greater chance of having certain problems.

Planning and Procedure

The doctor orders many tests before having a bone marrow transplant. These tests will help you find the type of bone marrow cells you need. You may also need to get radiation or chemotherapy to remove all the cancer cells or marrow cells before you get the new stem cells from your bone marrow.

When your doctor thinks you’re ready for the Transplant, the process starts. In an allogeneic transplant, your bone marrow cells will be taken from your donor a few days or before the transplant. If it uses your own, they will be taken from the stem-cell bank.

The doctor put healthy stem cells into your blood through a central venous catheter tube. These healthy stem cells then spread all over your body. They then start to form bone marrow over time.

Risks Associated with Bone Marrow Transplant

There are a few short-term risks to the transplant, like a drop in blood pressure and headaches, nausea, pain, and breathlessness. Chills and fever are also possible. The most severe complications include bleeding in the lungs, brain, or other parts, eye cataracts, and damage to other important organs. When donor cells attack your body, this is called graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), which can be hazardous. The graft failure happens when the transplanted cells don’t start producing new cells as planned.

It’s essential to keep a healthy diet and drink enough water to avoid getting tired. Avoiding alcohol and maintaining a healthy weight are two things that help you recover faster. 

Recovery 

Getting bone marrow from another person can take up to a week or more. People who get this treatment will have a low immune system when they are getting it. Because of this, you’ll need to stay in the hospital for observation. In this way, there is less risk of being exposed to things that can get you sick.

The transplant team keeps a close eye on the state of your engraftment all the time. It usually takes between 15 and 30 days after the first transplant. The first sign of engraftment is when the number of white blood cells in your body increases. This way shows that the transplant is making new blood cells.

It takes about three months. However, it could take up to a year for the body to fully heal.

Wrapping the post

It should be noted that after a transplant, it takes a long time for the body to heal. Make sure you choose the best hospital for your bone marrow transplant. However, the cost of a bone marrow transplant varies based on a lot of things, like what kind of transplant you get and where you get it. The cost of a bone marrow transplant in India is less than in any other country. Bone marrow transplant cost in India can vary from one hospital to the next, so you should do some research online and get prices from several hospitals before you decide to go through with the surgery. If you are looking for the best treatment and hospital for your bone marrow transplant, Lyfboat can help you get the best deal. Visit the site now!

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